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A Comprehensive Guide to Threads in Java

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  • Post last modified:January 27, 2024

1. Introduction

In Java, threads are instances of the Thread class or objects implementing the Runnable interface. A Java program itself is a single thread called the “main” thread.

2. Creating Threads

a. Extending the Thread Class

b. Implementing the Runnable Interface

3. Thread Lifecycle

Threads in Java go through different states, including NEW, RUNNABLE, BLOCKED, WAITING, TIMED_WAITING, and TERMINATED. Understanding these states is crucial for effective thread management.

4. Thread Synchronization

In a multithreaded environment, synchronization is essential to avoid data inconsistency issues. Java provides the synchronized keyword and the lock framework for this purpose.

a. Synchronized Method

b. Lock Framework

5. Thread Pools

Creating and managing threads individually can be resource-intensive. Java provides the ExecutorService framework to manage thread pools efficiently.


Understanding threads in Java is crucial for building concurrent and scalable applications. This tutorial covered the basics of creating threads, managing their lifecycle, synchronizing access to shared resources, and using thread pools. Multithreading is a powerful tool, but it requires careful consideration to avoid common pitfalls like race conditions and deadlocks.

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