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Using Python with MySQL

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  • Post last modified:February 24, 2024

In this tutorial, we’ll explore how to use Python to interact with a MySQL database. We’ll cover connecting to a database, performing basic CRUD (Create, Read, Update, Delete) operations, and handling errors. We’ll assume you have Python installed on your system along with the mysql-connector-python library.

Installation

First, make sure you have mysql-connector-python installed. You can install it using pip:

pip install mysql-connector-python

Connecting to MySQL

To get started, we need to establish a connection to a MySQL database. We’ll need the following information:

  • Hostname (e.g., “localhost” or an IP address)
  • Username
  • Password
  • Database name

Here’s an example of how to establish a connection:

import mysql.connector

# Establishing a connection
mydb = mysql.connector.connect(
    host="localhost",
    user="yourusername",
    password="yourpassword",
    database="yourdatabase"
)

# Creating a cursor object
cursor = mydb.cursor()

Replace "localhost", "yourusername", "yourpassword", and "yourdatabase" with your actual MySQL server details.

Creating a Table

Let’s create a simple table to work with. We’ll create a table called users with id, name, and email columns.

# Creating a users table
cursor.execute("CREATE TABLE users (id INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY, name VARCHAR(255), email VARCHAR(255))")

Inserting Data

Now let’s insert some data into the users table.

# Inserting data into the users table
sql = "INSERT INTO users (name, email) VALUES (%s, %s)"
val = ("John Doe", "john@example.com")
cursor.execute(sql, val)

# Committing the changes
mydb.commit()

print("Data inserted successfully.")

Retrieving Data

To retrieve data from the users table, we’ll use a SELECT query.

# Retrieving data
cursor.execute("SELECT * FROM users")

# Fetching all records
records = cursor.fetchall()

# Printing each record
for record in records:
    print(record)

Updating Data

Let’s update a record in the users table.

# Updating data
sql = "UPDATE users SET email = %s WHERE name = %s"
val = ("john.doe@example.com", "John Doe")
cursor.execute(sql, val)

# Committing the changes
mydb.commit()

print("Data updated successfully.")

Deleting Data

To delete a record from the users table:

# Deleting data
sql = "DELETE FROM users WHERE name = %s"
val = ("John Doe",)
cursor.execute(sql, val)

# Committing the changes
mydb.commit()

print("Data deleted successfully.")

Error Handling

It’s important to handle errors, especially when working with databases.

try:
    # Attempting an operation
    cursor.execute(some_sql_query)
    mydb.commit()
except mysql.connector.Error as error:
    # Handling errors
    print("Failed to execute operation: {}".format(error))
    mydb.rollback()  # Rolling back changes if an error occurs
finally:
    # Closing the cursor and connection
    cursor.close()
    mydb.close()

Conclusion

Remember to handle errors appropriately, especially when dealing with databases. MySQL is a powerful relational database, and Python provides a great interface to work with it. This tutorial should give you a solid foundation to start building your own Python applications that interact with MySQL databases.

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