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Understanding Spring Boot Profiles

Introduction :

In modern software development, the need to configure applications for different environments is crucial. Spring Boot, a popular framework for building Java applications, offers a powerful feature called “profiles” to address this requirement effectively. Profiles allow developers to define specific configurations for different environments such as development, testing, staging, and production. In this article, we’ll delve into the concept of Spring Boot profiles, explore how they work, and provide examples to illustrate their usage.

What are Spring Boot Profiles?

In Spring Boot, a profile is a set of configurations that are activated based on the environment in which the application is running. These configurations can include properties files, beans, or any other Spring components. By leveraging profiles, developers can create distinct setups tailored to various deployment environments, ensuring seamless transitions between development, testing, and production stages.

How do Spring Boot Profiles Work?

Spring Boot profiles are activated based on the value of the property. This property can be set in various ways:

  1. or application.yml: You can specify the active profiles directly in your or application.yml file using the property.
    For example:
  2. Command Line: You can specify the active profiles as a command-line argument when running your Spring Boot application:
    java -jar my-application.jar
  3. Environment Variables: You can also set the SPRING_PROFILES_ACTIVE environment variable:

Example: Configuring Different Database Connections

Let’s consider a scenario where our Spring Boot application needs to connect to different databases based on the deployment environment. We can achieve this using Spring Boot profiles.

  1. Define Configuration for Each Profile: In your or application.yml, define configurations for different environments. For instance:
  1. Activate Profiles: Set the active profile according to the environment. For example, in
  2. Use Profiles in Code: In your Spring Boot application, you can configure the data source bean to load properties based on the active profile. For instance:


Spring Boot profiles provide a flexible way to manage configurations across different environments. By leveraging profiles, developers can streamline the deployment process and ensure that their applications behave consistently across various deployment stages. Whether it’s adjusting database connections, enabling specific features, or fine-tuning logging settings, Spring Boot profiles offer a robust mechanism to meet the diverse needs of modern software development.

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