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Introduction to JaCoCo: A Comprehensive Guide with Code Examples

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Introduction to JaCoCo

JaCoCo, short for Java Code Coverage, is a widely-used tool for measuring code coverage in Java applications. It provides detailed information on how much of your code is executed during automated tests, helping you assess the effectiveness of your test suite. In this tutorial, we’ll delve into JaCoCo’s key features, installation, and usage with practical examples.

Key Features of JaCoCo

  1. Code Coverage Metrics: JaCoCo offers various metrics to measure code coverage, including line coverage, branch coverage, and cyclomatic complexity.
  2. Integration: It seamlessly integrates with popular build tools such as Maven, Gradle, and Ant.
  3. Versatility: JaCoCo supports both offline instrumentation and on-the-fly instrumentation.
  4. Report Generation: It generates comprehensive HTML reports that visualize code coverage data, making it easy to identify uncovered areas.
  5. Compatibility: JaCoCo supports Java projects of any size and complexity.



To use JaCoCo with Maven, add the following plugin configuration to your pom.xml:

        <!-- JaCoCo Maven plugin -->


For Gradle, add the following configuration to your build.gradle:

plugins {
    id 'jacoco'

jacoco {
    toolVersion = "0.8.7"

test {
    jacoco {
        append = false
        destinationFile = file("$buildDir/jacoco/test.exec")

jacocoTestReport {
    reports {
        xml.enabled false
        csv.enabled false
        html.destination file("$buildDir/reports/jacoco/html")

Usage Example

Let’s consider a simple Java class Calculator with methods for addition and subtraction:

public class Calculator {
    public int add(int a, int b) {
        return a + b;

    public int subtract(int a, int b) {
        return a - b;

Now, let’s write JUnit tests for these methods and use JaCoCo to measure code coverage:

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import org.junit.Test;

public class CalculatorTest {
    Calculator calculator = new Calculator();

    public void testAdd() {
        assertEquals(5, calculator.add(2, 3));

    public void testSubtract() {
        assertEquals(1, calculator.subtract(4, 3));

Generating JaCoCo Reports

After running the tests, you can generate JaCoCo reports by executing the following Maven or Gradle command:


mvn clean test jacoco:report


./gradlew clean test jacocoTestReport


In this tutorial, you’ve learned the basics of JaCoCo and how to integrate it into your Java projects. By measuring code coverage, you can ensure the quality and reliability of your software. Experiment with JaCoCo in your projects and explore its various features to improve your testing practices.

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