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Understanding JVM Memory Model and Garbage Collection

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  • Post last modified:May 15, 2024

In the realm of Java programming, understanding how memory is managed by the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and how garbage collection works is crucial for writing efficient and scalable applications. This tutorial will provide a comprehensive overview of the JVM memory model and garbage collection process, along with practical code examples to illustrate key concepts.

What is the JVM Memory Model?

The JVM memory model defines how memory is allocated and managed by the Java Virtual Machine during the execution of a Java program. It consists of several memory areas, each serving a specific purpose in the execution of Java applications.

Key Memory Areas in JVM

  1. Heap Memory: This is the runtime data area from which memory for all class instances and arrays is allocated. It’s the primary storage for objects created by the application.
  2. Stack Memory: Each thread in a Java application has its own stack memory, which stores method invocations and local variables. Stack memory is used for method execution and managing method call hierarchy.
  3. Method Area (PermGen/Metaspace): This area stores class metadata, method and field information, static variables, and constant pool data.
  4. PC Register: The Program Counter (PC) Register contains the address of the JVM instruction currently being executed.
  5. Native Method Stack: This memory area stores native method information, similar to the stack memory, but for native methods.

Garbage Collection in Java

Garbage collection is the process by which the JVM automatically deallocates memory that is no longer in use by the application. It helps prevent memory leaks and ensures efficient memory utilization.

Garbage Collection Algorithms

  1. Mark and Sweep: This is one of the simplest garbage collection algorithms. It works by marking objects that are reachable from root objects and then sweeping through memory to deallocate memory occupied by unmarked (unreachable) objects.
  2. Copying: This algorithm divides memory into two equal-sized regions, from-space and to-space. Live objects are copied from from-space to to-space, and then from-space is cleared entirely. This reduces fragmentation and improves memory locality.
  3. Generational: This algorithm divides objects into different generations based on their age. Younger objects are collected more frequently than older ones, as they are more likely to become unreachable soon after allocation.

Code Examples

Let’s illustrate some of these concepts with code examples:

public class GarbageCollectionExample {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        // Create an object
        MyClass obj1 = new MyClass();

        // Make obj1 eligible for garbage collection
        obj1 = null;

        // Trigger garbage collection explicitly

class MyClass {
    // Class definition

In this example, obj1 is assigned null to make it eligible for garbage collection. The System.gc() call explicitly requests garbage collection.


Understanding the JVM memory model and garbage collection mechanisms is essential for Java developers to write efficient and robust applications. By mastering these concepts and leveraging them effectively, developers can optimize memory usage and ensure the smooth performance of their Java applications.

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